Rosemary Statelova, Angela Rodel, Lozanka Peycheva, Ivanka Vlaeva and Venstislav Dimov (eds.): THE HUMAN WORLD AND MUSICAL DIVERSITY. Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the “Music and Minorities” Study Group in Varna, Bulgaria, 2006

Jurková Zuzana

In the proceedings of the fourth Music
and Minorities Study Group (2006 in
Varna, Bulgaria) there are 50 contributions
(of the nearly 70 papers presented).
In addition to pictorial and graphic figures),
the publication includes a CD
with 53 musical examples (mastered by
Gerda Lechleitner, Phonogrammarchiv
All four conference themes are represented:
1) “Hybridity as a Musical Concept”
(introductory theoretical article, plus 18
case studies, among them the only two
Czech papers);
2) “Minority-Minority Relations in
Music and Dance” (The majority of
the 14 contributions clearly show how
unclear the determination of a minority
is. Discussed are, e.g., two groups with
a shared religion that is interpreted in
different ways, groups on opposite sides
of national or ideological borders, mutual
relations of two or more groups that are
defined some other way), etc.;
3) “Music Education of Minority Children”
(the narrowest and most concrete
theme, in which the authors, using 14
different examples, demonstrate how
a community hands down what it considers
basic for the preservation of its own
identity; the absolute majority deal with
children of national, ethnic or religious
4) “Race – Class – Gender” (a theme
of stimulating contributions not focused
on ethnically or religiously defined
minorities. This shortest portion surprisingly
(?) most clearly shows how music in
an environment of asymmetric relations
functions as a symbolic means for agents
to present new self-representation.
The astonishing discovery reveals,
in the case of some delimitations, that
it is possible to arrive at certain generalizations,
while, in other cases, not at
all. This compels one to repeated reflection
about the appropriateness of those
delimitations, thus, e.g., about the formulations
of conference themes. (Reyes
1999 describes a very similar situation
in the case of immigrants in the USA:
only after recognizing the importance
of the difference between voluntary and
forced immigration did the research lead
to meaningful conclusions.) In the case
of research on minorities, on one hand,
it is certainly true that a group of people
identified as a minority appears to create
an exceptional variety of expressions,
including musical expressions, out of cultural
configurations often burdened with
conflict. For this reason, no matter how
well thought out the topics for discussion
may be, they almost always turn out to be
somewhat too narrow or schematic to capture
the rich varied musical and socio-cultural
reality (p. 9). On the other hand, too
broad a theme (as the first of them obviously
is) or an otherwise inappropriate
delimitation enables us to put together
phenomena, situations and data which
convince us of an exceptional variety of
musical expressions, but do not allow for
more general interpretation. The editors
express the same thought: It is difficult to
identify any regularities in these relationships...
(p. 11).
The proceedings contain all of the
contributions that were submitted.
This inclusiveness (here the editors call
this a “democratic approach”) is one of
the concomitant characteristics of the
“Music and Minorities” Study Group.
(Unsurprisingly – in regard to its democratic
or, shall we say, socially solidary
character – this group chose, among the
many possible definitions of majority,
the one which emphasizes an asymmetry
of approach to power. “Minorities are
groups of people distinguishable from the
DOMINANT group for cultural, ethnic,
social, religious, or economic reasons.”)
The other side of this democratic/allinclusive
coin is perhaps the obvious
inequality of the articles: not only in the
initial theories, methods, and terminologies,
but also, e.g., in the non-unified way
of quotations.
Content: Introduction; HYBRIDITY:
Elka Tschernokoshewa: Hybridity as
a Musical Concept: Theses and Avenues
of Research; Claire Levy: Performing
Hybridity: On the Case of Karandila;
Irene Markoff: The Case for Transgressive
Musical Orientations in Contemporary
Alevi Musical Expression: Purity Versus
Hybridity in the Sacred/Secular Kontinuum;
Ivanka Vlaeva: Hybridity in Turkish
Recordings from the 1960s in Bulgaria;
Ventsislav Dimov: On Some Early Sonic
Evidence of Musical Hybridization: Observations
on Commercial Gramophone
Recordings from Bulgaria; Gergana Panova-
Tekath: Dance as an Expression of
Hybridity and Ethnocentrism; Bozena
Muszkalska: Freilach, Jazz, and Chopin:
The Klezmer Movement in Contemporary
Poland; Veronika Seidlová: Music
– Religiosity – Community: A Case Study
of the Jewish Community in Prague;
Zuzana Jurková: The Czech Rompop
Scene: (Un?)surprising Continuity; Naila
Ceribašić: Macedonian Music in Croatia:
The Issues of Traditionality, Politics of Representation
and Hybridity; Alma Bejtullahu:
“Our Genuine Songs”: Perceptions of
Musical Change; Aleksandra Markovic´:
“Jugonostalgija Is the People’s Choice”:
Interethnic Influences Between Slovene
and South Slavic Music; Nino Tsitsishvili:
Authenticity and Hybridity in Three
Soundscapes of Georgian Musical. Culture
in the Context of Political Change; Ayhan
Erol: Change and Continuity in Alevi
Musical Identity; Caroline Bithell: A Song
of Many Colors: Musical Hybridity in Corsica;
Lozanka Peycheva: The Hybridization
of Local Music From Bulgaria:
The Role of Gypsy Clarinetists; Judith
R. Cohen: Music in the Lives of Judeus
and Ciganos in a Portuguese Village: Two
Adjacent and Separate Minorities; Gjermund
Kolltveit: The Development of Musical
Style and Identity Among the Romani
People of Norway; Elena Shishkina: The
Growth of Hybrid and Conglomerate Tendencies
in the Povolgie Germans: Traditional
Musical Culture at the Beginning
of the Third Millennium; EDUCATION:
Vesselka Toncheva: The Bulgarian School
in Vienna and Its Role in the Formation of
Bulgarian National Identity; Wolf Dietrich:
The Musical Education of Arvanites
Children in Central Greece; Petar Bagarić,
Željka Petrović and Tihana Rubić: Dervishes
in Croatia; Dorit Klebe: Transmission
of Musical Traditions of the Alevi
Ceremony: Musical Education of Young
People Playing Baglama in Berlin; Hande
Saglam: Music as a Cultural, Social and
Religious Transmission Element among
Alevis in Vienna, Austria; Rumiana Margaritova,
Stephan Balastchev: The Early
Saz Education of a Young Alevi (Bektashi)
Performer from Bulgaria; Hilde Binford:
Values and Culture Transmitted Through
Music in the Old Order Amish Community;
Gerda Lechleitner: Education, Tradition,
and Rules – The Pillars of Immigrant Societies:
Bukharian Jews in Vienna; Rosemary
Statelova: The Musical Education
of Children Through Traditional Songs
and Dances in Sorbian Lusatia; Gencho
Gaytandjiev: Roma Children in Bulgarian
Schools: Have the Internal Obstacles
Been Surmounted?; Smaragdi Boura:
Seeking Our Own Roots: Musical Education
of Greek Diasporic Youth in Germany;
Yoshiko Okazaki: Negotiation
Between Limitations and Possibilities in
Cultural Transmissions among a Migrant
Community; Akiko Takahashi: Teaching
Materials Used During Music Lessonsat
a Japanese Elementary School in Vienna;
The Influence of South Asian Cinema
and Film Music in the Hindu-Gujarati
Diaspora in Mozambique and in Portugal;
Louise Wrazen: Beyond the Polish Tatras:
Performing Pride, Identity, or Difference;
Essica Marks: Two Cultural Minorities
in Israel: The Jerusalem-Sephardi Musical
Tradition and the Musical Culture of
the Arab Minority in Israel; Dimitrina
Kaufmann: Klezmer Musical Ideas in the
Music of the Northern and Southern Balkans;
Nikolai Kaufmann: Jewish Ethnic
Music in My Choral Compositions; Filippo
Bonini Baraldi: The Gypsies of Ceuaș,
Romania: An “Emotional Minority”?;
Speranta Radulescu and Florin Iordan:
A Minority in a Multi-Ethnic Context: The
Jews of the Region of Botosani and Their
Party Music; Marin Marian-Balasa: On
the Social-Cultural Role of Music Among
Minor Religions (Some Romanian Samples);
Jakša Primorac: Suryoyo Music:
Between Aramean and Assyrian Identity;
Larry Francis Hilarian: The Significance
of the Hadhrami Arab Contributionsand
Influences on Melayu Music, Culture and
Islamic Practices; Eckehard Pistrick:
Emigration Songs – Interethnic and Multilingual
Polyphony in Epirus; RACE–
CLASS–GENDER: Ardian Ahmedaja:
Çamçe: Dance and the Power Relationship
Between Minorities and Majorities;
Susan Motherway: Renegotiating Traveller
Identity Through Folksong in Ireland;
Yoshitaka Terada: Angry Drummers and
Buraku Identity: The Ikari Taiko Group
in Osaka, Japan; Ana Hofman: Singing
Exclusion: Female Singers in the Musical
Practices of Southeastern Serbia; Timke226
het Teffera: Taboos and Exceptions Concerning
Female Musicians in East Africa
with a Special Focus on Ethiopia; Gisa Jähnichen:
Child Musicians in Class–Race–
Gender Conflicts; Adriana Helbig: Music,
Migrations, and Transnational Articulations
of Racialized Class Identities in Post-
Orange Revolution Ukraine
Zuzana Jurková

Vydání: 10, 2008, 2